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A Comprehensive Guide to Proper Noun Capitalization

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Sam Brown

Sam is an editor, ghostwriter and 7x Top Writer on

• 9 min read

Photo of a person typing at a laptop by Christin Hume on Unsplash

Photo by Christin Hume on Unsplash

If you’re in a hurry, here’s what you need to know:

A proper noun is the name of a specific person, place, organization, or thing - including songs, books, movies, languages, and nationalities.

In English, proper nouns should always be capitalized.

If you want a more detailed explanation proper noun capitalization, in this in-depth guide I will explain all the key points, based on several years experience as a finance article ghostwriter and Top Writer on

Understanding when to capitalize names, places, and other things is crucial for ensuring your writing is grammatically correct and well understood by your readers.

I’ll delve into the fundamentals, beginning with the definition of proper nouns. From there, I’ll guide you through recognizing them, highlight differences from common nouns, and cover essential rules. Explore examples, exceptions, and common pitfalls, all designed to enhance your writing.

Just remember that it’s not only capitalization of proper nouns that you need to consider in your writing. Correct usage of Title Case for your headlines and the titles of books, songs, movies and many more titles of works is essential.

Use our free title case converter tool to quickly and simply convert text to title case.

What is a Proper Noun?

A proper noun is simply the name of a specific person, place, organization, or thing.

Unlike common nouns, which denote general categories like “city”, “book”, or “cat”, proper nouns pinpoint individual entities with distinct identities like “Lisbon”, “Catch-22”, or “Professor Meowingtons”.

Proper nouns give these entities a personal touch, turning them into recognizable and unique references.

It is important to consider which nouns are proper nouns when writing, as unlike in speech where there is no distinction, we need to consider capitalization of proper nouns.

Examples of Proper Nouns

To understand this concept better, let’s explore some examples:

Person: “Alice”, “Bob”, “Carlos”.
These names refer to individual people.

Place: “London”, “Mount Everest”, “Grand Canyon”.
These are names of specific locations.

Organization: “NASA”, “Google”, “United Nations”.
These names identify distinct entities, whether they are government agencies or corporations.

Thing: “Eiffel Tower”, “The Lord of the Flies”, “Mona Lisa”.
These names represent unique objects, from landmarks to works of art.

Song: “Bohemian Rhapsody”, “Imagine”, “Billie Jean”.
Even song titles are proper nouns.

Language: “English”, “Mandarin”, “Swahili”.
Languages are proper nouns with their own characteristics and rules.

Nationality: “Italian”, “Japanese”, “Brazilian”.
These identify the origin or citizenship of individuals.

Can Proper Nouns Be Plural?

Yes, proper nouns can be plural. Whilst they typically refer to singular, unique entities, there are instances where they can take a plural form. This usually occurs when we’re referring to multiple individuals or instances of the same proper noun.

For example, if you’re talking about several people from Spain attending an event, you would use the plural form: “Many Spaniards attended the meetup.”

While pluralizing proper nouns is less common, it’s important to follow this rule when needed to maintain clarity in your writing. However, remember that most proper nouns remain singular to indicate a specific, individual entity.

Proper Noun Capitalization

One important rule about proper nouns in English is that they are always capitalized, regardless of their position in a sentence. This consistent capitalization emphasizes their unique status and sets them apart from common nouns.

Proper nouns add specificity and clarity to your writing, helping readers identify exactly who or what you’re referring to.

However, in sentence case, it is important not to fall into the trap of capitalizing common nouns and to make sure that only proper nouns are capitalized.

The rules are different for title case and you might be interested in our article Title Case vs Sentence Case for an explanation of the differences between these two formatting styles.

In the next section we’ll explore some of the common pitfalls and confusions around common nouns and proper nouns.

When to Capitalize Nouns

One of the most common writing mistakes is overuse of capitalization.

It has become common to use capitalization as a way of drawing attention to the Big Thing that the author wants to talk about.

But this is incorrect, reduces readability of your text, and can lead to confusion amongst readers. Instead of overuse of capitalization, it is better practice to use bold text or italics to highlight particular parts of sentences, and only capitalize proper nouns.

Some of the most common mistakes arise from confusion over what is a common noun and what is a proper noun. Remember that a common noun refers to a generic group, whereas a proper noun refers to a specific instance of that group.

Let’s look at a few examples to help us understand some common mistakes:

1. Family

Incorrect: Is your Uncle coming?
Correct: Yes, Uncle Bob is arriving tomorrow.

In this example, the first use of uncle refers to all uncles and is therefore a common noun and should not be capitalized. However in the response, “Uncle Bob” is how the speaker refers to his specific uncle and therefore it is a proper noun and should be capitalized.

If the speaker had said “Yes, my uncle, Bob, is arriving tomorrow”, in this case uncle is back to being used as a common noun and therefore should not be capitalized.

2. Seasons

Seasons cause a lot of confusion. This is largely because days of the week and months of the year are proper nouns, and therefore capitalized, but seasons are not.

Incorrect: Are you going on vacation this Summer?
Correct: No, we already took a break in the spring.

The only exception to this is in creative writing, poetry, or other emotive forms of writing where seasons are being personified.

Correct: They struggled as Summer gripped them in its firey hands.

3. Directions

Directions such as north, south, east, west, left, and right are not proper nouns and should not be capitalised, unless they form part of the name of a specific place.

Incorrect: Let’s head South.
Correct: Atlanta is the Deep South’s largest population center.

4. Subjects and Courses

Academic subjects are common nouns but when used as part of a course name become proper nouns.

Incorrect: I hate studying History.
Correct: Oh really? I loved History 101!

5. Titles

Job titles or other titles can be a little tricky to get right because, as with family members discussed above, it depends on the context in which they are used. When they are used in a general context they are common nouns but when used to identify a specific individual then they become proper nouns.

Let’s look a couple of examples to help understand better.

Incorrect: Who is the Prime Minister of the UK?
Correct: Prime Minister Rishi Sunak is the current prime minister.

Incorrect: I’ve never seen the Pope.
Correct: I saw Pope Jean-Paul II many years ago

6. Time Periods and Historical Events

Time periods such as eons, eras, periods, epochs, and ages are common nouns, unless they refer to a specific instance.

Incorrect: Humans have been through many distinct Ages
Correct: The Bronze Age lasted from 3300 BC to 1200 BC

Incorrect: In which Period did the dinosaurs die out?
Correct: Dinosaurs went extinct at the end of the Cretaceous Period

General time periods such as centuries or decades are common nouns, unless referring to a specific named period.

Incorrect: The Twenties
Correct: The Roaring Twenties

In the same way, the words for historical events only become proper nouns when they refer to a specific named example.

Incorrect: Which was the bloodiest World War?
Correct: The loss of life in the First World War was worse than in any previous conflict.

Exceptions to the Capitalization Rule

While the rule of capitalizing proper nouns in English is generally straightforward, there are a few exceptions and nuances to be aware of. These exceptions often arise from the evolving nature of language, specialized contexts, or specific style guidelines.

  1. Generic Proper Nouns: In some cases, proper nouns can become so widely adopted that they lose their unique status and become more like common nouns. When this happens, they may transition to lowercase.
    Example: “quixotic” was originally derived from the character Don Quixote but is now used more generically, as in “a quixotic adventure.”

  2. Commonization of Trademarks: Trademarked brand names that become generic terms for a product or service may be used in lowercase. This is known as genericization.
    Example: “aspirin” and “escalator” were once trademarked names but have become generic terms.

  3. Acronyms and Initialisms: Acronyms and initialisms, even if they represent proper nouns, are generally written in all capital letters.
    Example: “NASA” for National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Style Guides: Specific style guides, like the Associated Press (AP) Stylebook or the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), may have their own rules and exceptions for capitalization. Writers should adhere to the relevant style guide for consistency.

While proper nouns usually require capitalization, understanding these exceptions is important for gramatically correct and context-aware writing.

How to Recognise Proper Nouns

Proper nouns help readers navigate through text with clarity and precision. Recognizing proper nouns is a fundamental skill that allows you to distinguish these unique names from common nouns.

Now that we have explored many examples, hopefully you are confident in recognizing proper nouns but here is a brief summary:

Characteristics of Proper Nouns

Proper nouns possess distinct characteristics that set them apart:

  1. Capitalization: The most evident feature of proper nouns is their capitalization. They always start with a capital letter, regardless of their placement within a sentence. This capitalization acts as a visual cue, signaling their significance.
    Example: “Mary” is a proper noun, while “girl” is a common noun.
  2. Specificity: Proper nouns are incredibly specific, referring to a particular individual, place, organization, or thing. They leave no room for ambiguity, providing a precise identity.
    Example: “Eiffel Tower” refers to the iconic Parisian landmark, not just any tower.
  3. Uniqueness: Proper nouns are unique. There’s only one “Mona Lisa,” one “Mount Everest,” and one “Google.” These names denote entities that stand alone in their categories.
    Example: “Apple” can refer to the tech giant, but it can also be a common noun for the fruit.

Identifying Proper Nouns in Context

Recognizing proper nouns becomes easier with practice. When reading or writing, keep an eye out for words that meet the criteria mentioned above. Here are some tips to help you identify them in context:

  1. Capital Letters: Look for words that start with capital letters, especially in the middle of sentences.
    Example: “London is famous for its historic landmarks.”
  2. Specific Names: Pay attention to names of people, places, and organizations. These are often proper nouns.
    Example: “Michael Jordan is a legendary basketball player.”
  3. Uniqueness: If a word refers to a one-of-a-kind entity, it’s likely a proper noun.
    Example: “Taj Mahal is an architectural masterpiece.”

By honing your ability to recognize proper nouns in your own writing and in others’, you enhance your writing and comprehension skills. It ensures that you correctly capitalize these names, contributing to the overall clarity and professionalism of your writing.

Final Thoughts

Well done on making it to the end of my in-depth guide to proper noun capitalization. We’ve explored all the fundamentals, recognized the distinct characteristics of proper nouns, and learned when and how to capitalize them correctly.

Now, let’s recap the key takeaways:

  1. Precision in Writing
    Proper nouns are the cornerstones of precision in your writing. They represent specific individuals, places, organizations, and things. By capitalizing them consistently, you ensure that your readers can easily identify and understand these unique references.

  2. The Capitalization Rule
    One of the defining rules of proper nouns in English is their capitalization. Regardless of where they appear in a sentence, proper nouns are always capitalized. This simple yet crucial rule distinguishes them from common nouns, which typically remain in lowercase.

  3. Examples and Exceptions
    Throughout this guide, I’ve provided examples and explored exceptions to reinforce your understanding. From names of people and places to titles of songs and works of art, we’ve covered a wide range of proper nouns. We’ve also addressed common pitfalls, such as the capitalization of family members, directions, days, months, seasons, and job titles.

  4. Enhancing Your Writing Skills
    By mastering proper noun capitalization, you’re enhancing your writing skills. You’ll produce clearer, more professional, and grammatically correct content. Whether you’re writing for academic, professional, or creative purposes, this skill is indispensable.

Next Steps

Now that you’re equipped with the knowledge and skills to handle capitalizing proper nouns with confidence, it’s time to put what you’ve learned into practice. Pay attention to these essential elements in your writing, and watch how they elevate the precision and professionalism of your prose (jeez I love alliteration).

Remember, that it’s not only capitalization of proper nouns that you need to consider in your writing. Correct usage of Title Case for your article headlines and the titles of books, songs, movies and many more titles of works is essential.

Try TitleFormat’s title case converter tool to quickly and simply convert text to title case.

Tags: Sentence case

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